-- Leo's gemini proxy

-- Connecting to vault.transjovian.org:1965...

-- Connected

-- Sending request

-- Meta line: 20 text/gemini;lang=en

Power-to-weight ratio



**Power-to-weight ratio** (**PWR**) (also called **specific power**, or **power-to-mass ratio**) is a calculation commonly applied to engines and mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another. Power-to-weight ratio is a measurement of actual performance of any engine or power source. It is also used as a measurement of performance of a vehicle as a whole, with the engine's power output being divided by the weight (or mass) of the vehicle, to give a metric that is independent of the vehicle's size. Power-to-weight is often quoted by manufacturers at the peak value, but the actual value may vary in use and variations will affect performance.


The inverse of power-to-weight, weight-to-power ratio (power loading) is a calculation commonly applied to aircraft, cars, and vehicles in general, to enable the comparison of one vehicle's performance to another. Power-to-weight ratio is equal to thrust per unit mass multiplied by the velocity of any vehicle.


Power-to-weight (specific power)


The power-to-weight ratio (specific power) formula for an engine (power plant) is the power generated by the engine divided by the mass. in this context is a colloquial term for . To see this, note that what an engineer means by the "power to weight ratio" of an electric motor is not infinite in a zero gravity environment.


A typical turbocharged V8 diesel engine might have an engine power of and a mass of , giving it a power-to-weight ratio of 0.65 kW/kg (0.40 hp/lb).


Examples of high power-to-weight ratios can often be found in turbines. This is because of their ability to operate at very high speeds. For example, the Space Shuttle's main engines used turbopumps (machines consisting of a pump driven by a turbine engine) to feed the propellants (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) into the engine's combustion chamber. The original liquid hydrogen turbopump is similar in size to an automobile engine (weighing approximately ) and produces for a power-to-weight ratio of 153 kW/kg (93 hp/lb).


Physical interpretation


In classical mechanics, instantaneous power is the limiting value of the average work done per unit time as the time interval Δ*t* approaches zero (i.e. the derivative with respect to time of the work done). : P # \lim _{\Delta t\rightarrow 0} \tfrac{\Delta W(t)}{\Delta t}


\lim _{\Delta t\rightarrow 0} P_\mathrm{avg} = \frac{d}{dt}W(t)\,


The typically used metric unit of the power-to-weight ratio is \tfrac{\text{W}}{\text{kg}}\; which equals \tfrac{\text{m}^2}{\text{s}^3}\;. This fact allows one to express the power-to-weight ratio purely by SI base units. A vehicle's power-to-weight ratio equals its acceleration times its velocity; so at twice the velocity, it experiences half the acceleration, all else being equal.


Propulsive power


If the work to be done is [[wikt:rectilinear|rectilinear]] motion of a body with constant mass m\;, whose center of mass is to be accelerated along a (possibly non-straight) to a speed |\mathbf{v}(t)|\; and angle \phi\; with respect to the centre and radial of a gravitational field by an onboard powerplant, then the associated kinetic energy is


: E_K =\tfrac{1}{2} m|\mathbf{v}(t)|^2


where: :m\; is mass of the body :|\mathbf{v}(t)|\; is speed of the center of mass of the body, changing with time.


The work–energy principle states that the work done to the object over a period of time is equal to the difference in its total energy over that period of time, so the rate at which work is done is equal to the rate of change of the kinetic energy (in the absence of potential energy changes).


The work done from time *t* to time *t* + Δ*t* along the path *C* is defined as the line integral \int_C \mathbf{F} \cdot d\mathbf{x} # \int_t^{t + \Delta t} \mathbf{F} \cdot \mathbf{v}(t) dt, so the fundamental theorem of calculus has that power is given by \mathbf{F}(t) \cdot \mathbf{v}(t)


m\mathbf{a}(t) \cdot \mathbf{v}(t) = \mathbf{\tau}(t) \cdot \mathbf{\omega}(t).


where: :\mathbf{a}(t) = \frac{d}{dt}\mathbf{v}(t)\; is acceleration of the center of mass of the body, changing with time. :\mathbf{F}(t)\; is linear force – or thrust – applied upon the center of mass of the body, changing with time. :\mathbf{v}(t)\; is velocity of the center of mass of the body, changing with time. :\mathbf{\tau}(t)\; is torque applied upon the center of mass of the body, changing with time. :\mathbf{\omega}(t)\; is angular velocity of the center of mass of the body, changing with time.


In propulsion, power is only delivered if the powerplant is in motion, and is transmitted to cause the body to be in motion. It is typically assumed here that mechanical transmission allows the powerplant to operate at peak output power. This assumption allows engine tuning to trade power band width and engine mass for transmission complexity and mass. Electric motors do not suffer from this tradeoff, instead trading their high torque for traction at low speed. The power advantage or power-to-weight ratio is then


: \mbox{P-to-W} = |\mathbf{a}(t)||\mathbf{v}(t)|\;


where: :|\mathbf{v}(t)|\; is linear speed of the center of mass of the body.


Engine power


The useful power of an engine with shaft power output can be calculated using a dynamometer to measure torque and rotational speed, with maximum power reached when torque multiplied by rotational speed is a maximum. For jet engines the useful power is equal to the flight speed of the aircraft multiplied by the force, known as net thrust, required to make it go at that speed. It is used when calculating propulsive efficiency.


Examples




Engines




Heat engines and heat pumps


Thermal energy is made up from molecular kinetic energy and latent phase energy. Heat engines are able to convert thermal energy in the form of a temperature gradient between a hot source and a cold sink into other desirable mechanical work. Heat pumps take mechanical work to regenerate thermal energy in a temperature gradient. Standard definitions should be used when interpreting how the propulsive power of a jet or rocket engine is transferred to its vehicle. {| class# "wikitable sortable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" |- ! rowspan


2 |Heat Engine/Heat pump type ! colspan# 2 |Peak power output ! colspan


2 |Power-to-weight ratio ! rowspan# 2 class


"unsortable" |Example use |- !data-sort-type# number |SI !data-sort-type


number |English !data-sort-type# number |SI !data-sort-type


number |English |- | Wärtsilä RTA96-C 14-cylinder two-stroke diesel engine |8203 kW |11,000 hp |36.46 kW/kg |22.2 hp/lb |U.S. Army Top Fuel Dragster |- | PWR RS-24 (SSME) Block I H2 turbopump | 53,690 kW | | 153 kW/kg <!-- 352 kg --> | 93 hp/lb <!-- 775 lb --> | Space Shuttle |}


Electric motors and electromotive generators


An electric motor uses electrical energy to provide mechanical work, usually through the interaction of a magnetic field and current-carrying conductors. By the interaction of mechanical work on an electrical conductor in a magnetic field, electrical energy can be generated. {| class# "wikitable sortable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" |- ! rowspan


2 |Electric motor type ! colspan# 2 data-sort-type


numeric |Weight ! colspan# 2 data-sort-type


numeric |Peak power output ! colspan# 2 |Power-to-weight ratio ! rowspan


2 class# "unsortable" |Example use |- ! SI ! English ! SI ! English ! data-sort-type


numeric |kW/kg ! data-sort-type# numeric |hp/lb |- | Kawak 4 kW 28 VDC brushless DC motor | | | style


"text-align:center" | 1.34 kW/kg | style="text-align:center" | 0.52 hp/lb | Electric aircraft |}


Fluid engines and fluid pumps


Fluids (liquid and gas) can be used to transmit and/or store energy using pressure and other fluid properties. Hydraulic (liquid) and pneumatic (gas) engines convert fluid pressure into other desirable mechanical or electrical work. Fluid pumps convert mechanical or electrical work into movement or pressure changes of a fluid, or storage in a pressure vessel. {| class# "wikitable sortable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" |- ! rowspan


2|Fluid powerplant type ! colspan# 2|Dry weight ! colspan


2|Peak power output ! colspan# 2|Power-to-weight ratio !Example use |- ! data-sort-type


"number" | SI ! data-sort-type# "number" | English ! data-sort-type


"number" | SI ! data-sort-type# "number" | English ! data-sort-type


"number" | SI ! data-sort-type# "number" | English ! |- | PlatypusPower Q2/200 hydroelectric turbine |5.5 kg |12.1 lb |92 kW |123 hp |16.7 kW/kg |10.2 hp/lb |Vehicle transmissions, forestry equipment<!-- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v


v2-Io3kqTEg --> |}


Thermoelectric generators and electrothermal actuators


A variety of effects can be harnessed to produce thermoelectricity, thermionic emission, pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity. Electrical resistance and ferromagnetism of materials can be harnessed to generate thermoacoustic energy from an electric current.


Electrochemical (galvanic) and electrostatic cell systems




(Closed cell) batteries


All electrochemical cell batteries deliver a changing voltage as their chemistry changes from "charged" to "discharged". A nominal output voltage and a cutoff voltage are typically specified for a battery by its manufacturer. The output voltage falls to the cutoff voltage when the battery becomes "discharged". The nominal output voltage is always less than the open-circuit voltage produced when the battery is "charged". The temperature of a battery can affect the power it can deliver, where lower temperatures reduce power. Total energy delivered from a single charge cycle is affected by both the battery temperature and the power it delivers. If the temperature lowers or the power demand increases, the total energy delivered at the point of "discharge" is also reduced.


Battery discharge profiles are often described in terms of a factor of battery capacity. For example, a battery with a nominal capacity quoted in ampere-hours (Ah) at a C/10 rated discharge current (derived in amperes) may safely provide a higher discharge current – and therefore higher power-to-weight ratio – but only with a lower energy capacity. Power-to-weight ratio for batteries is therefore less meaningful without reference to corresponding energy-to-weight ratio and cell temperature. This relationship is known as Peukert's law. | rowspan# "6" | 3.65 V | rowspan


"2" | -20 °C | 154 kJ/kg 30C to 2.5 V <!-- 5.2 Ah from graph, but voltage drops quickly to around 2.71V, rises to around 3.1 then drops to 2.5V. Assume 2.8V nominal. --> | 41.4 W/kg 30C (180 A) <!-- Assume 2.71V here because drop is early in profile, rise to around 3.1V then drop to 2.5V --> |- | 182 kJ/kg 1C to 2.5 V <!-- 5.2 Ah from graph. Assume 3.3V nominal. --> | 67.4 W/kg 1C <!-- Assume 3.8V here --> |- | rowspan# "4" | 25 °C | 232 kJ/kg 1C to 2.5 V <!-- 6Ah nominal capacity; mass


0.34 kg; nominal continuous discharge for 6 hours --> | 64.4 W/kg 1C |- | 233 kJ/kg 58.3C to 2.5 V <!-- 350A at 3.65V delivering 79.2 kJ/22Wh in 62s; mass # 0.34 kg; max continous --> | 3289 W/kg 58.3C (350 A) <!-- ((3.65V - (350A * 1.3e-3ohm)) * 350A) / 0.34kg --> |- | 34 kJ/kg 267C to 2.5 V <!-- 1.6kA for short burst 2s


3.24Wh; mass # 0.34 kg; pulse --> | 7388 W/kg 267C (1.6 kA) <!-- ((3.65V - (1600A * 1.3e-3ohm)) * 1600A) / 0.34kg --> |- | 4.29 kJ/kg 333C to 2.5 V <!-- 2kA for short burst 200ms


0.406Wh; mass = 0.34 kg; pulse --> | 9706 W/kg 333C (2 kA) <!-- ((3.65V - (2000A * 1.0e-3ohm)) * 2000A)/0.34kg --> |}


Electrostatic, electrolytic and electrochemical capacitors


Capacitors store electric charge onto two electrodes separated by an electric field semi-insulating (dielectric) medium. Electrostatic capacitors feature planar electrodes onto which electric charge accumulates. Electrolytic capacitors use a liquid electrolyte as one of the electrodes and the electric double layer effect upon the surface of the dielectric-electrolyte boundary to increase the amount of charge stored per unit volume. Electric double-layer capacitors extend both electrodes with a nanopourous material such as activated carbon to significantly increase the surface area upon which electric charge can accumulate, reducing the dielectric medium to nanopores and a very thin high permittivity separator.


While capacitors tend not to be as temperature sensitive as batteries, they are significantly capacity constrained and without the strength of chemical bonds suffer from self-discharge. Power-to-weight ratio of capacitors is usually higher than batteries because charge transport units within the cell are smaller (electrons rather than ions), however energy-to-weight ratio is conversely usually lower. {| class# "wikitable sortable" |- ! Capacitor type ! data-sort-type


"number"|Capacitance ! data-sort-type# "number"|Voltage ! data-sort-type


"number"| ! data-sort-type# "number"|Energy-to-weight ratio ! data-sort-type


"number"|Power-to-weight ratio |- | rowspan# 2 | ACT Premlis lithium-ion capacitor | rowspan


1 | 20.5 mF | rowspan# 1 | 3300 V | rowspan


1 | (unknown) | 2.3 kJ/kg | (unknown)<!-- 6,800,00 W/kg @ 100 kA --> |}


Fuel cell stacks and flow cell batteries


Fuel cells and flow cells, although perhaps using similar chemistry to batteries, do not contain the energy storage medium or fuel. With a continuous flow of fuel and oxidant, available fuel cells and flow cells continue to convert the energy storage medium into electric energy and waste products. Fuel cells distinctly contain a fixed electrolyte whereas flow cells also require a continuous flow of electrolyte. Flow cells typically have the fuel dissolved in the electrolyte. {| class# "wikitable sortable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" |- ! Fuel cell type ! data-sort-type


"number"|Dry weight ! data-sort-type="number"|Power-to-weight ratio ! Example use |- | Redflow Power+BOS ZB600 10kWh ZBB | 43 kg <!-- 125 kW --> | 2,900 W/kg | |}


Photovoltaics


{| class="wikitable" |- ! Photovoltaic Panel type ! Power-to-weight ratio |- | Thyssen Solartec 128 W Nanocrystalline Si Triplejunction PV module <!-- 1000W, 13kg -->


|}


Vehicles


Power-to-weight ratios for vehicles are usually calculated using curb weight (for cars) or wet weight (for motorcycles), that is, excluding weight of the driver and any cargo. This could be slightly misleading, especially with regard to motorcycles, where the driver might weigh 1/3 to 1/2 as much as the vehicle itself. In the sport of competitive cycling athlete's performance is increasingly being expressed in VAMs and thus as a power-to-weight ratio in W/kg. This can be measured through the use of a bicycle powermeter or calculated from measuring incline of a road climb and the rider's time to ascend it.


Locomotives


A locomotive generally must be heavy in order to develop enough adhesion on the rails to start a train. As the coefficient of friction between steel wheels and rails seldom exceeds 0.25 in most cases, improving a locomotive's power-to-weight ratio is often counterproductive. However, the choice of power transmission system, such as variable-frequency drive versus direct current drive, may support a higher power-to-weight ratio by better managing propulsion power. {| class# "wikitable sortable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" |- ! Vehicle ! data-sort-type


number | Year ! data-sort-type# number | Power ! data-sort-type


number | Vehicle weight ! data-sort-type=number | Power-to-weight ratio |- | Stephenson's Rocket 0-2-2 steam locomotive with tender | 2000 | | | 41.2 W/kg / 0.025 hp/lb |}


Utility and practical vehicles


Most vehicles are designed to meet passenger comfort and cargo carrying requirements. Vehicle designs trade off power-to-weight ratio to increase comfort, cargo space, fuel economy, emissions control, energy security and endurance. Reduced drag and lower rolling resistance in a vehicle design can facilitate increased cargo space without increase in the (zero cargo) power-to-weight ratio. This increases the role flexibility of the vehicle. Energy security considerations can trade off power (typically decreased) and weight (typically increased), and therefore power-to-weight ratio, for fuel flexibility or drive-train hybridisation. Some utility and practical vehicle variants such as hot hatches and sports-utility vehicles reconfigure power (typically increased) and weight to provide the perception of sports car like performance or for other psychological benefit.


Notable low ratio



{| class# "wikitable sortable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" |- ! Vehicle ! data-sort-type


number | Year ! data-sort-type# number | Power ! data-sort-type


number | Vehicle weight ! data-sort-type=number | Power-to-weight ratio |- | Alberto Contador's Verbier climb 2009 Tour de France on Specialized bike | 2009 | | | 6.7 W/kg / 0.004 hp/lb |- | Force Motors Minidor Diesel 499 cc auto rickshaw | 2018 | | | 65 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb |- | Autozam AZ-1 | 1992 | | | 65 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb |- | Subaru 360 | 1971 | | | 65.5 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb |- | Honda N600 | 1968 | | | 66 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb |}


Common power

{| class# "wikitable sortable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" |- ! Vehicle ! data-sort-type


"number" | Date ! data-sort-type# "number" | Power ! data-sort-type


"number" | Vehicle weight ! data-sort-type="number" | Power-to-weight ratio |- | Toyota Prius 1.8 (petrol only) | 2021 | | | 153 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb |- | [[Toyota Tacoma#First generation (N140/N150/N160/N170/N190; 1995)|Toyota Tacoma]] TRD 3.4 L V6 | 1996 | | | 163 W/kg / 0.1 hp/lb |}


Performance luxury, roadsters and mild sports

Increased engine performance is a consideration, but also other features associated with luxury vehicles. Longitudinal engines are common. Bodies vary from hot hatches, sedans (saloons), coupés, convertibles and roadsters. Mid-range dual-sport and cruiser motorcycles tend to have similar power-to-weight ratios. {| class# "wikitable sortable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" |- ! Vehicle ! data-sort-type


"number" | Year ! data-sort-type# "number" | Power ! data-sort-type


"number" | Vehicle weight ! data-sort-type="number" | Power-to-weight ratio |- | eRuf Model A electric car | 2008 | | | 78.5 W/kg / 0.047 hp/lb |- | Morgan 3-Wheeler | 2001 | | | 174 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb |- | Maserati GranSport | 2004 | | | 175 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb |- | Pontiac GTO | 2005 | | | 176.5 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb |- | Nissan Fairlady Z NISMO | 2013 | | | 178 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb |}


Sports vehicles


Power-to-weight ratio is an important vehicle characteristic that affects the acceleration of sports vehicles.


{| class# "wikitable sortable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" |- ! Vehicle ! data-sort-type


"number" | Year ! data-sort-type# "number" | Power ! data-sort-type


"number" | Vehicle weight ! data-sort-type="number" | Power-to-weight ratio |- | Saleen S331 Supercab | 2008 | | | 134.5 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb |- | Ford F-150 SVT Raptor | 2010 | | | 137 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb |- | Lamborghini 63 speedboat | | | | 7761 W/kg / 4.72 hp/lb |}


Early vehicles


{| class# "wikitable sortable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" |- ! Vehicle ! data-sort-type


number | Year ! data-sort-type# number | Power ! data-sort-type


number | Vehicle weight ! data-sort-type=number | Power-to-weight ratio |- | Benz Patent Motorwagen 954 cc | 1985 | | | 8703.5 W/kg / 5.29 hp/lb |- | Blue Flame land speed record car | 1970 | | | 23,838 W/kg / 14.5 hp/lb |}


Aircraft


Propeller aircraft depend on high power-to-weight ratio to generate sufficient thrust to achieve sustained flight, and then to fly fast. {| class# "wikitable sortable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" |- ! Aircraft ! data-sort-type


"number" | Power ! data-sort-type# "number" | ! data-sort-type


"number" | Power-to-weight ratio |- | Hughes H-4 Hercules Spruce Goose | kW / hp | | W/kg / hp/lb |- | Boeing B-29 Superfortress | kW / hp | | W/kg / hp/lb |- | Antonov An-22 | kW / hp | | W/kg / hp/lb |- | Lockheed C-130 Hercules | | | W/kg / hp/lb |- | Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules | | | W/kg / hp/lb |- | North American P-51 Mustang Fighter aircraft 1941 | | | W/kg / hp/lb |- | Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 turboprop airliner | | | W/kg / hp/lb |- | Mitsubishi A6M Zero Fighter aircraft 1939 | | | W/kg / hp/lb |- | Messerschmitt Bf 109 Fighter aircraft 1935 | | | W/kg / hp/lb |- | Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey | kW / hp | | W/kg / hp/lb |- | Supermarine Spitfire Fighter aircraft 1936 | | | W/kg / hp/lb |- | de Havilland Hornet Fighter aircraft 1946 | | | W/kg / hp/lb |}


Thrust-to-weight ratio

Main article: Thrust-to-weight ratio


Jet aircraft produce thrust directly. {| class# "wikitable sortable" |- ! Aircraft ! data-sort-type


"number" | Thrust ! data-sort-type# "number" | ! data-sort-type


"number" | Thrust-to-weight ratio |- | Airbus A380 | 4 × | 575 t / 1,267,658 lb | |- | Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit | 4 × | 170.6 t / 376,000 lb | |- | Boeing 747-300 | 4 × | 378 t / 833,000 lb | |- | Airbus A340-500 | 4 × | 380 t / 840,000 lb | |- | Boeing 777-300ER | 2 × | 351.5 t / 775,000 lb | |- | Concorde | 4 × | 185.07 t / 408,010 lb | |- | Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II | 1 × | 31.751 t / 70,000 lb | |- | Grumman F-14 Tomcat | 2 × | 33.725 t / 74,350 lb | |- | [[Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet]] | 2 × | 29.937 t / 66,000 lb | |- | General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon | 1 × | 19.187 t / 42,300 lb | |- | McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle | 2 × | 30.844 t / 68,000 lb | |- | Eurofighter Typhoon | 2 × | 23.5 t / 51,809 lb | |- | Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor | 2 × | 38 t / 83,500 lb | |}


Human


Power to weight ratio is important in cycling, since it determines acceleration and the speed during hill climbs. Since a cyclist's power to weight output decreases with fatigue, it is normally discussed with relation to the length of time that he or she maintains that power. A professional cyclist can produce over 20 W/kg (0.012 hp/lb) as a 5-second maximum.


See also




Energy density


Engine power


Propulsive efficiency


Specific output


Thrust-to-weight ratio


Vehicle metrics


von Kármán–Gabrielli diagram


References




External links




Measurespeed.com - Power to Weight Ratio Calculator


Power to Weight Ratio (PWR) Calculator




Short text

Source

-- Response ended

-- Page fetched on Sun Sep 19 18:16:15 2021